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Experiments Physics

The experiments in the category of PHYsics deal with the basics of the creation, propagation and interaction of ultrasouind as well as the methodology of ultrasonic methods.
Besides the basic experiments in view of ultrasonic properties and phenomena like sound velocity, attenuation, absorption or reflection and transmission we also offer more complex experiments regarding to particular physical effects and its applications.

PHY01 Basics of pulse echo method (A-Scan) )))
Article Thumb A sample with built-in discontinuities is examined by means of the pulse echo method. Amplitude scans are carried out from different sides of the sample. The echo signals imaged in the recorded A-Scan images are examined and analysed.
PHY02 Sound velocity in solids )))
Article Thumb In the experiment, the longitudinal sound velocity in acrylic is to be examined and determined at two different sound frequencies. For this purpose, time of flight measurements are carried out according to the pulse echo method (ultrasonic A-Scan) at three acrylic cylinders of different lengths.
PHY03 Acoustic attenuation in solids )))
Article Thumb By means of amplitude measurements according to the ultrasonic transmission method in samples of different lengths, the attenuation of an ultrasonic wave on its way through a medium is determined. Ascertaining the acoustic attenuation coefficient at different ultrasonic frequencies sheds light upon...
PHY04 Acoustic attenuation in liquids )))
Article Thumb In the experiment, the attenuation of sound waves in different liquids in dependence on the sound path is investigated. For each of the liquids the acoustic attenuation coefficient is determined by linear regression...
PHY05 Spectral investigations )))
Article Thumb Using the simple model of multiple reflection at a plate, the experiment shows the difference between the spectrum of a pulse and the spectra of periodic signals. The cepstrum is derived from the periodic spectrum and in both cases the periodic time is determined in order to calculate the plate...
PHY06 Frequency dependence of resolution power )))
Article Thumb Based on two small and closely spaced discontinuities, the axial resolution power of two ultrasonic probes of different frequency is investigated. By analysing the recorded A-Scan images, the connections between wavelength, frequency, pulse length and resolution power are demonstrated...
PHY07 Shear waves in solids )))
Article Thumb Based upon the ultrasonic transmission through a plane parallel plate at different angles of incidence, the formation and propagation of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in solids is investigated. From the determined longitudinal and transversal sound velocities, the elastic material factors...
PHY08 Ultrasonic B-Scan )))
Article Thumb By recording the ultrasonic cross-sectional image of a simple test object "by hand" using an ultrasonic echoscope, the basics of the B-Scan method are clearly demonstrated. Special features regarding scan quality such as sound focus, spatial resolution or imaging errors are investigated and...
PHY09 Ultrasonic computer tomography (CT) )))
Article Thumb In this experiment the formation of an ultrasonic CT scan image is clearly shown. The relevance and differences of individual measurement parameters such as attenuation and sound velocity are analysed and the influence of filters and image processing is investigated...
PHY10 Characteristics of sound field )))
Article Thumb In this experiment the sound field of an ultrasonic probe in water is investigated by determining the sound pressure distribution in the axial and lateral direction by means of a hydrophone and characteristic sound field quantities are discussed...
PHY11 Debye-Sears effect )))
Article Thumb The experiment shows the diffraction of light at a standing ultrasonic wave (Debye-Sears effect) in a liquid. The sound velocity in the liquid (water) is determined using the dependence of the diffraction maxima on the wavelength of the diffracted laser light and the frequency of the ultrasonic...
PHY12 Projection of standing waves )))
Article Thumb In the experiment a standing ultrasonic wave in a liquid is imaged by means of divergent laser light. The dependence of the brightness modulation of the projection images produced upon the wavelength of the light and the frequency of the ultrasonic wave is investigated and the sound velocity in the...
PHY13 Ultrasonic Doppler effect )))
Article Thumb The experiment provides an introduction to the basics of flow measurement on the basis of the acoustic or ultrasonic Doppler effect and examines its dependence on flow velocity and Doppler angle...
PHY15 Fluid mechanics )))
Article Thumb Flow measurements according to the ultrasonic Doppler method are used to demonstrate fundamental laws governing the flow of liquids in pipes and their dependence on the flow velocity and the pipe geometry...
PHY16 Mechanical scan methods )))
Article Thumb A computer-controlled scanner is used to record ultrasonic B-Scan images of a simple sample with two ultrasonic probes of different frequencies. The image quality of the B-Scan presentations is analysed regarding focus zone, resolution power and possible artefacts...
PHY17 Acousto-optical modulation at standing waves )))
Article Thumb The acousto-optical effect of the amplitude and phase modulation of light diffracted at a standing ultrasonic wave is investigated. The effect is used to determine sound velocity in water...
PHY18 Acousto-optical modulation at travelling waves )))
Article Thumb This experiment investigates the frequency shifts of the interference maxima that occur in the diffraction of monochromatic light at a travelling ultrasonic wave in a liquid (water)...
PHY19 Phase and group velocity )))
Article Thumb In the experiment, the phase and group velocity of an ultrasonic wave in water is investigated. The phase velocity is measured for several frequencies in dependence on the wavelength. The group velocity is determined by the measurement of the time of flight of a short ultrasonic pulse...
PHY20 Determination of focus zone )))
Article Thumb In the experiment, two ultrasonic probes of different frequency are characterised by a scanning of their sound fields with a hydrophone with regard to their near field length, focus zone and axial resolution power.
PHY21 Reflection and transmission at boundaries )))
Article Thumb In the experiment, the effects of reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves at boundaries are investigated. The reflection coefficient is determined for different combinations of the materials acrylic, PVC and brass.
PHY22 Phase shift and resonance effects )))
Article Thumb In the experiment, ultrasonic signals from reflections at boundaries of different materials are recorded and analysed regarding their phase position. Furthermore, the influence of thin layers upon the reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves is investigated using λ/4 and λ/2...
PHY23 Dispersion of ultrasonic waves (Lamb waves) )))
Article Thumb In the experiment, the phenomenon of formation and propagation of guided ultrasonic waves (Lamb waves) is investigated. The frequency-dependent velocity (dispersion) of Lamb waves in thin glass plates is measured. The Lamb waves are stimulated and determined by means of angle beam probes.
PHY24 Thermoacoustic sensor )))
Article Thumb The experiment is an introduction into the problem of the power measurement of ultrasound, using the example of the thermoacoustic sensor. The connections between the acoustic parameters and the significance of sound power measurements for dosimetry in diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasonic...